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A Sanskrit word (from the root muh) meaning “confused, stupefied, bewildered, perplexed,” etc. In Rāja Yoga, Vyāsa, seventh century commentator on yoga, classifies the modalities of consciousness (or mental planes, citta bhūmi) as: unstable or distracted (kipta), confused (mūdha), scattered (vikipta), onepointed (ekāgra), and completely restrained or suppressed (niruddha).

Of these “conditions,” the first two are common to all individuals, for, from the yogic point of view, the psycho-mental life is normally confused and unstable. The third can be overcome by fixing the mind by means of the practice of careful attention. Only the fourth and fifth are considered yogic states of consciousness, obtained by meditation or asceticism.


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