Skip to main content

         * Index                            * Biographies          * Theosophical

         * Glossary of Terms      * Religion                    Organisations                                     

                                                  * Philosophy            * Contributors

Theosophical Encyclopedia

Ontology

The main branch in metaphysics that deals with the nature of being or existence, and the properties and relationships of beings. The word was first used in the 17th century, but the concept was already treated in Aristotle’s Metaphysics. Christian Wolff brought it into popular currency in the 18th century, and it became widely adopted to distinguish it from the other branches of metaphysics, such as cosmology and theology.

Immanuel Kant states that ontology as an exploration of abstract being, depends upon our capacity to arrive at a priori principles, that is, those that are understood without the use of perception or experience. In theosophy, Helena P. BLAVATSKY distinguishes between Being and Be-ness. She states that in the unmanifested state (universal PRALAYA), there is no existence. What can be said is that there is simply the Absolute without attributes or properties, a state beyond conception. She writes in The Secret Doctrine:

Our kind critics have found the word “Be-ness” very amusing, but there is no other way of translating the Sanskrit term, Sat. It is not existence, for existence can only apply to phenomena, never to noumena, the very etymology of the Latin term contradicting such assertion, as ex means “from” or “out of,” and sistere “to stand”; therefore, something appearing being then [there?] where it was not before. Existence, moreover, implies something having a beginning and an end. How can the term, therefore, be applied to that which ever was, and of which it cannot be predicated that it ever issued from something else? . . . “Be-ness” is not being, for it is equally non-being. We cannot conceive it, for our intellects are finite and our language far more limited and conditioned even than our minds. How, therefore, can we express that which we can only conceive of by a series of negatives? (CW X:315)

This Be-ness has inconceivable “aspects”:

This “Be-ness” is symbolised in the Secret Doctrine under two aspects. On the one hand, absolute abstract Space, representing bare subjectivity, the one thing which no human mind can either exclude from any conception, or conceive of by itself. On the other, absolute Abstract Motion representing Unconditioned Consciousness. Even our Western thinkers have shown that Consciousness is inconceivable to us apart from change, and motion best symbolises change, its essential characteristic. This latter aspect of the one Reality, is also symbolised by the term “The Great Breath,” a symbol sufficiently graphic to need no further elucidation. Thus, then, the first fundamental axiom of The Secret Doctrine is this metaphysical ONE ABSOLUTE — BE-NESS — symbolised by finite intelligence as the theological Trinity. (SD I:14)

In this sense, all existence has a beginning and an ending, and thus are “unreal” or “illusory.” Only the Sat or Be-ness is real (CW VIII:124).

V.H.C.

© Copyright by the Theosophical Publishing House, Manila

Tag Cloud